小姐姐直播官网

After Extensive Data Gathering and Analysis—Plus a Worldwide Media Frenzy—NASA’s Famed Twins Study has Begun to Yield Results

污直播下载安装

It has been called the most comprehensive analysis of individual human beings ever conducted in scientific history. In March 2015, astronaut Scott Kelly rode a Soyuz spacecraft to the International Space Station and proceeded to spend 340 days in orbit as part of an in-depth study of the long-term effects of space travel on the human body. As rare and valuable as that effort was—representing the longest-ever space mission for a NASA astronaut—it was all the more remarkable thanks to a tantalizing offer from Kelly’s identical twin brother: Mark Kelly, himself a retired astronaut. Since Mark was staying on terra firma, he volunteered to serve as an experimental control, allowing scientists to compare two genetically identical men—one on Earth, the other in zero gravity some 220 miles above it, traveling at almost five miles per second.

97豆奶视频下载

The cover of Science featuring the Twins Study.

During Scott’s time on the space station (as well as six months before and after his mission), the brothers underwent physical and cognitive testing and contributed numerous blood, urine, saliva and fecal samples for analysis. Dubbed the NASA Twins Study, the effort comprised 10 interconnected research projects—on such topics as cognition, cardiovascular health, genomic changes, immune response, and the composition of gut, skin and oral bacteria—funded by a total of $1.5 million in agency grants and involving dozens of investigators around the country and abroad.

One of those projects, which focused on how Scott’s environment affected how his genes were expressed and regulated, was led by Weill Cornell Medicine’s Dr. Chris Mason—and along with the nine others, it would make headlines around the world. In April, the Twins Study landed on the cover of the journal Science, which featured a 20-page article summing up the results—the first publication of what’s expected to be many, as researchers continue to parse a mother lode of data. “Overall, the Twins Study is a tour de force about how the body’s adaptability extends to outer space,” says Dr. Mason, the WorldQuant Foundation Research Scholar in physiology and biophysics and an associate professor of neuroscience, of physiology and biophysics, and of computational genomics in computational biomedicine. “The vast majority of changes we saw returned to normal—but about 8 or 9% remained. So it also shows that the body was still to some degree adapting to terrestrial life, even six months after Scott Kelly returned to Earth.”

Among the Mason Lab’s findings were that thousands of genes became active in Scott while remaining dormant in Mark—an effect that became more marked the longer Scott stayed in space. Those genes included ones that play a role in repairing damaged DNA—which may reflect the fact that while in space, Scott was exposed to nearly 50 times as much radiation as his brother was on Earth. Also active were genes related to inflammation, which could be due to the inherent stresses of space travel on the human body; these include the effects of being in zero gravity, such as fluid shifts and bone loss. For Dr. Francine Garrett-Bakelman, who was the first author on the Science paper, the findings made sense. “I’m a physician-scientist, and as a physician, I thought, ‘Yes, an astronaut is under significant stress,’” says Dr. Garrett-Bakelman, who completed her research and medical postgraduate training at Weill Cornell Medicine (where she was an instructor and an assistant attending physician at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center while working in Dr. Mason’s lab and that of Dr. Ari Melnick, the Gebroe Family Professor of Hematology/Oncology).  She is now an assistant professor of medicine and of biochemistry and molecular genetics at the University of Virginia School of Medicine, as well as an adjunct assistant professor of medicine at Weill Cornell Medicine. “He gets launched into space, spends a year in a foreign environment, then comes down to Earth subjected to a tremendous amount of g-forces. It tells us that the human body is resilient and responding normally to a stressful situation.”

草榴视频官网

MIRROR IMAGES: Twins Mark (left) and Scott Kelly. Opposite page: Scott on a spacewalk—his third—in December 2015. Credit: Robert Markowitz/ NASA / Johnson Space Center

As Dr. Mason notes, a particularly striking finding was the extent to which Scott’s immune system was on high alert once he went to space: every type of immune cell the researchers measured was active at levels that are practically unheard of. And in fact, Dr. Mason says, the response was even more dramatic when Scott came home. “In his memoir, he says that when he landed back on Earth he didn’t feel well—and we could see why very clearly, in his blood work and gene expression data,” says Dr. Mason, who is also a cofounder, equity stakeholder and consultant for Onegevity Health, a company that provides a comprehensive molecular portrait and customized recommendations for an individual’s health based on integrated analysis of longitudinal blood, genetics and microbiome profiles. “There were all these markers for inflammation and for immune cells kicking into high gear. His body was basically having this moment of, ‘Wow, I’m back in gravity’—these markers in the bloodstream were sometimes 4,000% higher than normal. So we could see that while going to space was hard on the body, returning to gravity was, in some ways, even harder.”

One of the Twins Study’s most surprising discoveries related to telomeres, sections of DNA located at the ends of chromosomes. Normally, as people get older their telomeres get shorter—and researchers had expected to see that happen in space, possibly even faster due to stress and radiation exposure. But in fact—as an investigator at Colorado State University discovered and the Dr. Mason Lab confirmed with new DNA sequencing and analysis methods—Scott’s telomeres got longer, though they reverted to normal after he came home. Why? Researchers don’t yet know. “We need to do a lot more science on this,” says Dr. Cem Meydan, a research associate in the Dr. Mason Lab and a co-first author on the Science paper. “We need to find out why this is happening, and whether we can prevent it or study it for other health-related purposes, such as to fight cancer or aging.”

Dr. Mason and his colleagues emphasize that when it comes to understanding how the human body reacts to being in space, the Twins Study had an obvious and inherent limitation: it had only one subject who actually went aloft. Furthermore, says Dr. Garrett-Bakelman, “this was a single study of one white male; what happens in women, or in people from other racial or cultural backgrounds, we have no idea. Trying to infer anything at all is very difficult without having additional subjects’ data to look at.” And of course, given that the Kelly brothers were NASA’s first (and so far, only) identical twin astronauts, in many ways the study was a one-of-a-kind opportunity. “As a geneticist, I wish every person was a twin or a triplet so we could study them,” Dr. Mason says with a laugh. “It’s unclear if or when this will happen again. It’s going to be hard to match this study anytime soon.” Still, when it comes to figuring out whether humans could survive a mission to Mars or beyond, he and his colleagues call the study’s findings highly encouraging. “Obviously it’s a sample size of one, so it’s hard to make generalized statements—but if we saw similar results in multiple people, I think it bodes well for long-term space travel,” Dr. Meydan says. “Most of the changes we saw can potentially be targeted; in the next five or 10 years, we could develop drugs, interventions or other technology such as shielding for radiation or clothing for reversing fluid shifts in the body.”

Dr. Mason also points out that the Twins Study could have benefits beyond the findings themselves; some of the procedures and analytic techniques its researchers developed could be a boon to terrestrial medicine. “It forced us to be nimble with limited numbers of cells and to sequence really quickly,” he says, noting that their methods could inform rapid diagnosis of infectious pathogens or genetic analysis of a cancer patient’s tumor. Working with some of the same collaborators as in the Twins Study, Dr. Mason’s team also helped pioneer the first-ever DNA sequencing experiments on the International Space Station. Plus, Dr. Garrett-Bakelman says, the study stands as a prime example of how broad scientific questions can be answered through large-scale collaboration. “If you think about it, there were over 80 authors on the Science paper—from multiple institutions, locations and countries—in addition to all the support staff at NASA that helped us do this,” she says. “It was truly a challenging project to complete, and it wouldn’t have been possible without that entire team. That’s how these projects should be done: you bring in expertise from many different areas, think outside the box and piece things together that you would have never thought about unless you were with all those people in the same room.”

With the overarching Science paper out, the Mason Lab has another half dozen publications in progress—continuing to explore what research associate and co-author Daniela Bezdan calls “the most comprehensive and integrated molecular view to date of how a human responds to spaceflight.” For Bezdan and many of her colleagues, just working on a space-related project was a wish come true. The first time she got an e-mail from NASA, she was so excited that she took a screenshot of the header; now, every 10th message in her in-box is from the agency. “We can contribute to making space exploration possible, which could be important for the survival of the human species; it’s something bigger than ourselves,” Bezdan says. “When I think of space travel, I think of three compartments: we are now describing what happens in space; the next step is to understand it—and the third step is to use it for our advantage.”

In Scott Kelly’s 2017 memoir—entitled “Endurance: A Year in Space, a Lifetime of Discovery”—he describes his record-setting tenure on the space station, the longest-duration mission for a NASA astronaut. Toward the end of the book, he contemplates his contribution to the Twins Study, noting that he expects to continue to be a test subject for the rest of his life. “Science is a slow-moving process,” he writes, “and it may be years before any great understanding or breakthrough is reached from the data. Sometimes the questions science asks are answered by other questions. This doesn’t particularly bother me—I will leave the science up to the scientists. For me, it’s worth it to have contributed to advancing human knowledge, even if it’s only a step on a much longer journey.”

This story first appeared in Weill Cornell Medicine, Summer 2019

Weill Cornell Medicine
Office of External Affairs
1300 York Avenue
Box 314
New York, NY 10065 Phone: (646) 962-9476

小蝌蚪视频官网 小v视频下载安装 小v视频下载 lutube下载 成版人抖音富二代下载 恋人直播官网 合欢视频官网 香草成视频人下载 夜夜直播下载 盘她s直播下载 豆奶视频下载 黄瓜视频官网 富二代f2官网 小v视频下载安装 骚虎直播下载 花姬直播下载安装 彩云直播官网 麻豆视频下载 橙子视频下载 小宝贝直播官网 泡泡直播官网 草莓下载 樱花视频下载安装 樱花雨直播下载 小可爱下载 水蜜桃下载安装 蘑菇视频官网 樱花视频下载安装 夏娃直播下载安装 享爱直播下载安装 泡芙官网 主播福利下载安装 秋葵视频官网 番茄社区官网 花仙子直播官网 抖阴官网 彩云直播下载 宅男之家下载安装 红高粱直播下载安装 佳丽直播视频下载安装 夜遇直播号下载安装 盘她s直播下载 青青草官网 朵朵直播官网 d2天堂下载安装 草莓下载 梦露直播官网 佳丽直播下载 和欢视频下载 红楼直播官网 小优下载安装 黄瓜直播官网 小奶狗视频下载 avgo下载 泡芙官网 富二代f2抖音下载安装 美梦视频下载安装 污软件下载 Avbobo下载安装 AVnight下载安装 蜜柚直播下载 小蝌蚪视频下载 媚妹秀官网 九尾狐视频下载 香蕉官网 小米粒直播官网 春水堂视频下载 豆奶视频官网 香草成视频人下载 蝴蝶直播官网 九尾狐视频下载安装 年华直播下载安装 主播大秀下载安装 大菠萝下载 草榴短视频官网 美梦视频下载 香草视频下载 夜魅直播下载 香草视频下载安装 老王视频下载安装 性直播下载 7秒鱼直播下载 芭乐官网 花友直播下载安装 玉米视频下载 花心视频下载安装 内裤直播下载安装 Avbobo下载安装 卖肉直播下载安装 午夜神器官网 比心直播下载 尤蜜视频下载 尤蜜视频下载安装 麻豆视频官网 成人快手官网 微啪官网 一对一直播下载 考拉直播下载安装 茄子视频官网 柚子直播下载安装 遇见直播官网 ML聚合下载安装 男人本色西瓜视频下载安装 红高粱直播官网 蓝颜下载安装 夜夜直播官网 快猫下载安装 泡芙下载 骚虎直播下载 小米粒直播下载 小狐仙直播官网 梦露直播下载安装 成版人短视频官网 菠萝菠萝蜜视频官网 食色短视频下载 男人本色西瓜视频下载安装 小草莓下载安装 A头条下载安装 尤蜜视频下载 樱花官网 宅男之家官网 茄子直播官网 成人直播下载安装 小小影视下载 s8视频下载 萝卜视频官网 梦露直播下载安装 蜜桃直播官网 ML聚合下载安装 番茄社区下载 桃花直播下载 木瓜下载 花心直播官网 心上人直播下载 朵朵直播下载 麻豆视频下载安装 秀色直播官网 杏花直播下载安装 豌豆直播下载 花粥直播官网 春水堂视频下载安装 享爱直播下载 成版人短视频下载安装 恋夜秀场官网 恋人直播下载 蓝精灵直播官网 佳丽直播视频官网 fi11含羞草下载安装 直播盒子官网 趣播下载 萝卜视频下载安装 小米粒直播官网 野花视频下载 小猪视频官网 柚子直播官网 猛虎直播下载安装 台湾swag官网 月光宝盒直播官网 成版人抖音下载 小v视频官网 swag视频下载安装 快猫短视频下载安装 成版人音色短视频下载安装 七仙女直播下载安装 成人直播官网 小蝌蚪视频官网 秀色小抖音官网 7秒鱼直播下载 菠萝蜜视频下载安装 暗夜直播官网 蜜蜂视频下载安装 樱花视频官网 蜜桃直播下载 MM直播下载 69视频下载 小狐仙直播下载安装 avgo下载安装 七仙女直播官网 暖暖直播下载安装 主播大秀下载 花姬官网 花姬下载安装 美岁直播下载 牛牛视频官网 茄子直播下载 向日葵视频下载安装 花姿下载安装 猫咪视频官网 69视频下载 妖妖直播下载 小怪兽直播官网 后宫视频官网 啪嗒视频下载 可乐视频下载安装 媚妹秀官网 云雨直播下载安装 初见直播下载 蝴蝶直播下载 黄瓜下载安装 荔枝下载安装 富二代官网 享受直播官网 直播盒子下载 樱花直播下载安装 灭火卫视官网 猫咪软件官网 享爱直播官网 月色直播下载安装 fi11含羞草下载安装 杏花直播官网 啪嗒视频下载安装 妖妖直播下载安装 合欢视频官网 樱桃直播下载安装 夜巴黎直播官网 小可爱下载 咪咪直播下载 小可爱官网 彩云直播官网 蜜桃下载安装 小草视频官网 尤蜜下载 成人快手下载 骚虎直播官网 野花视频官网 黄鱼视频下载 性直播官网 小天仙直播下载 性直播下载安装 恋人直播官网 快狐短视频官网 笔芯直播下载安装 可乐视频下载安装 health2官网 成版人茄子视频下载安装 JAV名优馆官网 圣女直播下载安装 比心官网 朵朵直播官网 牛牛视频下载安装 抖阴官网 花心视频官网 大西瓜视频下载安装 麻豆传媒直播官网 可乐视频官网 红高粱直播下载安装 食色短视频下载 抖阴视频官网 向日葵下载安装 媚妹秀下载安装 黄色直播软件官网 尤蜜视频下载 左手视频下载 成版人音色短视频下载 大秀直播下载安装 千层浪直播官网 Avnight下载安装 光棍影院下载安装 九尾狐视频官网 花仙子直播官网 ML聚合直播下载安装 一对一直播下载 欢喜视频下载 老王视频下载安装 牛牛视频下载 快狐短视频下载安装 成人快手下载 小小影视下载 小公主直播下载 奶茶视频下载 佳丽直播下载安装 麻豆传媒直播官网 麻豆传媒直播官网 暖暖直播官网 享爱官网 泡芙下载安装 七秒鱼下载 美岁直播下载安装 丝瓜下载 妖妖直播下载 青青草下载 小酒窝直播下载安装 成人直播下载安装 Kitty直播下载安装 s8视频下载 考拉直播下载 福利直播下载安装 浪浪视频下载 麻豆传媒视频官网 可乐视频官网 享爱直播下载 考拉直播下载 十里桃花直播下载 樱花下载安装 小酒窝直播官网 葫芦娃下载安装 ML聚合直播下载安装 草榴短视频官网 IAVBOBO官网 鲍鱼视频下载 秀儿直播官网 粉色官网 猫咪视频下载 6房间视频直播下载 秀儿直播官网 考拉直播官网 茄子视频下载 IAVBOBO下载安装 萝卜视频下载 抖阴直播下载安装 猫咪视频官网 BB直播官网 小酒窝直播下载安装 梦鹿直播下载 大番号下载 兔子直播下载安装 7秒鱼下载 bobo直播下载安装 杏花直播官网 佳丽直播下载安装 久草视频下载安装 小v视频官网 月光直播官网 硬汉视频下载安装 草莓视频官网 梦鹿直播下载 妖妖直播下载 丝瓜草莓视频官网 压寨直播下载 暖暖直播下载安装 米老鼠直播下载 享爱直播下载 9uu下载 草榴短视频官网 内裤直播下载安装 金鱼直播下载安装 花友直播下载 黄瓜直播官网 年轻人片下载安装 水晶直播下载安装 成版人茄子视频官网 桃花下载安装 爱爱视频官网 ML聚合直播下载安装 豆奶抖音短视频下载安装 Avnight下载 金屋藏娇直播间官网 JOJO直播下载 盘他直播下载安装 月亮视频下载安装 97豆奶视频下载 小米粒直播官网 朵朵直播官网 番茄社区官网 Avnight下载安装 台湾swag官网 冈本下载 香草视频官网 小奶猫官网 红玫瑰直播下载 斗艳直播下载 小狐仙视频下载 秋葵视频下载安装 9uu官网 小仙女下载安装 色秀直播下载安装 夏娃直播下载安装 金鱼直播下载 杏趣直播官网 左手视频下载安装 久草官网 七秒鱼下载安装 欢喜视频官网 午夜神器下载安装 花仙子直播下载 春水堂下载安装 蘑菇视频下载 盘她下载安装 仙人掌官网 午夜直播间下载 梦幻直播下载安装 iAVBOBO下载安装 69视频下载 小宝贝直播下载安装 主播福利下载 秋葵视频下载 大秀直播下载 本色视频下载 千层浪官网 美梦视频下载 91香蕉视频下载安装 小蝌蚪视频下载安装 比心直播下载 千层浪官网 圣女直播下载安装 久草官网 盘她下载 奶茶视频下载 金屋藏娇直播间官网 朵朵直播官网 红娘直播官网 免费黃色直播下载 蚪音官网 夜巴黎直播官网 蓝精灵直播下载 泡芙官网 彩色直播官网 iAVBOBO下载安装 香草成视频人官网 木瓜视频下载安装 樱桃视频下载 小蝌蚪官网 大秀直播官网 东京视频下载安装 蜜柚直播下载 香草成视频人下载安装 快猫视频下载安装 小蝌蚪下载 粉色视频官网 香蕉下载 啪嗒视频官网 米老鼠直播下载安装 小公主直播下载安装 棉花糖直播下载 桃花直播官网 樱花直播下载安装 f2富二代下载安装 葫芦娃下载安装 樱花下载 d2天堂下载安装 杏花直播下载 夜夜直播下载安装 樱桃官网 彩云直播下载安装 红楼直播下载安装 泡芙视频下载安装 橙子直播官网 swag台湾下载 雨云直播官网 月亮视频官网 香蕉视频下载 小宝贝直播下载 抖阴官网 香蜜直播下载 富二代f2短视频官网 AVBOBO官网 秋葵视频下载安装 繁花直播下载安装 媚妹秀下载安装 小蝌蚪官网 富二代短视频官网 茶馆视频下载 盘她下载安装 蚪音下载安装 夜魅直播下载安装 红高粱直播下载 梦幻直播下载安装 A头条下载安装 快猫视频下载安装 可乐视频下载安装 小酒窝直播下载安装 蜜柚下载 香蕉下载 蓝颜官网 桃花直播下载 成版人音色短视频官网 夜巴黎直播下载 花姿下载安装 硬汉视频官网 享爱官网 蜜柚直播下载 初恋直播下载安装 暖暖直播下载 麻豆传媒下载 月光直播下载 合欢视频下载安装 小宝贝直播下载 蓝精灵直播官网 草莓直播下载安装 69视频官网 盘她官网 红颜下载安装 笔芯直播下载 香蕉视频官网 豆奶抖音短视频下载安装 秀色直播官网 小酒窝直播官网 豌豆直播官网 Kitty直播下载安装 小花螺直播下载安装 木瓜下载安装 草鱼下载 享爱直播下载 玉米视频官网 樱花雨直播下载 黄色直播软件官网 骚虎直播下载 彩云直播官网 菠萝菠萝蜜视频官网 本色视频下载安装 骚虎直播下载 猫咪视频官网 AVnight下载安装 91视频官网 富二代下载 桃花下载安装 望月直播官网 丝瓜视频官网 遇见直播下载 69视频下载安装 斗艳直播下载 番茄视频下载 黄瓜视频人下载安装 小天仙直播下载安装 久草官网 小公主直播官网 比心官网 夜魅直播官网 麻豆视频下载安装 趣播下载 樱花雨直播下载安装 花心社区下载安装 花友直播下载安装 野花视频下载安装 好嗨哟直播官网 iAVBOBO下载安装 小怪兽下载 蓝精灵直播下载安装 台湾swag下载安装 水蜜桃官网 恋人直播官网 小奶狗视频下载 iavbobo官网 柠檬视频下载 Kitty直播下载 烟花直播官网 榴莲视频官网 小蝌蚪视频下载安装 污直播官网 小小影视官网 f2富二代下载 望月直播下载 大秀直播官网 草榴直播下载安装 尤蜜官网 9uu下载 花粥直播下载 性直播下载安装 榴莲视频官网 快喵下载安装 麻豆传媒下载 桃花直播下载 冈本下载安装 秀儿直播下载 粉色视频下载 黄瓜直播下载 棉花糖直播官网 柠檬视频下载 富二代f2官网 四虎下载 小猪视频下载安装 小蝌蚪官网 小奶狗下载安装 荔枝视频下载 食色短视频下载安装 陌秀直播下载 小草视频下载 小可爱官网 樱花雨直播下载安装 iAVBOBO官网 黄色直播软件下载安装 红杏视频下载安装 红楼直播官网 云上花直播官网 本色视频下载安装 成版人音色短视频下载 月色直播下载安装 佳丽直播下载 骚虎直播下载 樱桃视频官网 性直播官网 花粥直播下载 9uu官网 大番号官网 月亮直播下载 妖妖直播下载安装 iAVBOBO官网 小v视频官网 小猪视频下载 合欢视频下载 草榴短视频下载 大象视频下载安装 快猫视频下载 91视频下载 污直播官网 柠檬直播官网 午夜神器官网 金屋藏娇直播间官网 芭乐视频下载 快猫视频官网 彩云直播下载安装 粉色下载 丝瓜官网 花姿直播官网 鸭脖视频下载 泡泡直播下载安装 老王视频下载安装 97豆奶视频官网 望月直播下载 花友直播官网 小天仙直播下载安装 食色官网 薰衣草直播下载 西瓜直播下载安装 成版人抖音下载 老王视频官网 套路直播下载 梦幻直播下载安装 成版人音色短视频官网 成版人音色短视频下载 火辣直播官网 后宫官网 含羞草视频官网 草鱼官网 成版人短视频官网 烟花巷下载